Environmentalists, unions back latest push for offshore wind on Lake Michigan (2023)

CHICAGO — A coalition of Democratic politicians, labor unions and environmental groups is advocating for a plan that would put an offshore wind farm off the coast of Lake Michigan on Chicago’s South Side.

Lawmakers are currently considering legislation to create a regulatory framework for offshore wind while directing the state to seek federal funding and a developer for the Lake Michigan project, which would need to be online by the end of 2030.

Advocates say the proposal, known as “Rust Belt to Green Belt,” is uniquely suited to bring jobs and economic development to Chicago’s South Side while positioning the state as a leader in renewable energy deployment. Opponents criticize its potential $680 million price tag for ratepayers and its potential impact on bird populations.

House Bill 2132, sponsored by Chicago Democrats Rep. Marcus Evans Jr. and Sen. Robert Peters, passed the Illinois House on March 24 by an 85-21 vote and now awaits consideration in the Senate.

It marks the latest step in Illinois’ ongoing shift toward renewable energy. In 2021, Illinois passed the landmark Climate and Equitable Jobs Act, which aims to phase out most carbon-emitting energy generation by 2045. With about one-third of the state’s energy generation currently coming from coal and natural gas plants, policymakers have been rushing to incentivize clean energy.

“CEJA came with two promises: fighting climate change and ensuring equity,” Peters said. “This is a project that does both.”

Environmental justice, jobsBackers of the proposal say it will be an economic boon for Chicago’s South Side, which has been historically neglected when it comes to economic development.

“It’s time for us to have a renewable energy project that’s rooted in equity,” Peters said.

The project’s organizers say it will bring 2,700 jobs in predominantly Black and Brown communities. They also say it will bring $497 million of economic activity, the majority of which will come during the construction phase.

The bill would require the state to choose the future developer of the project based on the cost of the project, its viability and an “equity & inclusion plan.”

The project’s developer must also have at least one “community benefits agreement,” a contract that outlines how the development will help the community in which it is located.

Advocates say the project is a prime example of environmental justice, a framework that stresses the fair treatment of poor and marginalized communities, which disproportionately bear the weight of environmental hazards like industrial pollution and the effects of climate change.

The Sierra Club of Illinois has advocated for offshore wind on Lake Michigan for over a decade. Jack Darin, the organization’s director, applauded the initiative.

“This does raise the bar even further by making the equity component and the community benefits agreement some of the core aspects of the project,” Darin said.

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Chynna Hampton is the equity director for the Climate Jobs Illinois campaign, a coalition of labor groups with a “pro-worker, pro-climate agenda.”

“There’s a green economy now and it’s critical for labor to be part of it,” Hampton said.

Hampton said that the jobs and labor organizing that would come with offshore development compliments other state efforts to bring climate jobs to the state, such as the Climate Works Preapprenticeship Program outlined in CEJA.

She added that labor advocates have been in talks with businesses and a potential developer for the project: Diamond Offshore Wind, a Boston-based company that has also been featured at events with Peters, Evans and community groups.

In addition to union support, the project has earned praise from at least one major business group in the region.

“This pilot program will not only result in hundreds of millions of dollars in economic growth, but it will also provide new, high-growth jobs with a focus on equity across every neighborhood in Chicagoland,” Chicagoland Chamber of Commerce head Jack Lavin said in a statement.Illinois as a leader in the region

Proponents of the measure say that being an early leader in offshore wind is critical for Illinois. In a statement last week, Peters described the current situation on the Great Lakes as “a race between adjacent states to get the federal infrastructure investments and the jobs the offshore wind industry will bring.”

“Inevitably, this is going to happen,” Peters said in an interview. “Is Illinois going to be a leading force in doing it right?”

This project would have a minimum of 150 megawatts of “nameplate capacity,” the amount of energy the plant would generate under ideal conditions. This is smaller than most planned offshore wind developments, although the project’s advocates say it is meant as a pilot.

The U.S. currently only has two operational offshore wind farms, although more than a dozen are planned to be built off the east coast in the next 10 years and several leases have been signed for projects off the coast of California.

These projects are managed by the federal Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, which also regulates offshore oil and gas drilling. The federal government hasn’t implemented such a framework for development in the Great Lakes, meaning regulation of any offshore development would be handled at the state level.

Over the past 12 years, Illinois has taken steps to establish a regulatory framework for offshore wind, including establishing broad regulatory guidance for offshore developments. The legislation under consideration in the Senate goes further by establishing a process to select developers creating a state fund to manage state support of offshore development.

One other project is planned in the Great Lakes, the Icebreaker Wind project off the coast of Ohio in Lake Erie. That project is planned to have a capacity of 20.7 megawatts and is scheduled for completion in 2026.

Although the Icebreaker project is moving forward, it was not without controversy. The Ohio Supreme Court had to rule on the development after several opponents to the project filed suit, claiming the state didn’t have enough data on the project’s impact on bird and bat populations.

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Primary concernsOpponents of the proposal have been sharply critical of the funding method laid out in the bill, which includes potential rate increases for energy customers in northern Illinois.

The Illinois Power Agency buys energy from renewable sources using “renewable energy credits,” a financial asset that is paid for with rate increases on Illinois customers. CEJA limits these rate increases to 4.25 percent of what customers paid for energy in 2009.

The Rust Belt to Green Belt legislation would authorize the IPA to procure additional renewable credits to buy power from the potential offshore wind farm and bump the rate cap increase limit to 4.5 percent for eligible customers.

“It’s a relatively marginal rate increase,” Peters said.

Mark Denzler, the head of the Illinois Manufacturers Association, said he expects manufacturers to pay “the lion’s share” of the increase in energy costs.

Denzler added that manufacturers take an “all of the above” approach to energy generation and support offshore wind development. Their issue is with how lawmakers are proposing to fund the project.

The Environmental Law & Policy Center, a non-profit environmental advocacy group, calculated the project would cost at least $34 million per year and $680 million over its lifetime.

“Ratepayers will have to pay for a project that’s more expensive than other developments,” said David McEllis, the organization’s Illinois legislative director.

Among the organization’s concerns: the project could lead to violations of the “public trust doctrine,” the long-held legal principle that Lake Michigan is held in trust by the state for public use.

“This project is an expensive and unnecessary grant of public land in Lake Michigan to a private developer,” McEllis said.

The state has a complex history with the public trust doctrine as it relates to developments on Lake Michigan, with federal court cases as far back as 1892 and as recently as 1990 blocking state attempts to cede portions of the lakebed to private developers.

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The state’s “Lake Michigan Offshore Wind Advisory Council” called this doctrine an “issue of primary concern” to any development on the lake in a 2012 report. This finding, among others from the advisory council, prompted the state to pass the Lake Michigan Wind Energy Act in 2013, clarifying its authority to facilitate offshore wind development on Lake Michigan “so long as all affected public trust lands and waters of Lake Michigan remain under public ownership and control.”

Ohio’s regulations around the public trust were part of the legal opposition to the Icebreaker Wind development. The Ohio court system ultimately sided with the developers. The specifics of Ohio’s law and precedent are different from Illinois, so how the Illinois courts would respond to a challenge on this basis is an open question.

What about birds?Some conservationists have raised concern that wind development in Lake Michigan would interrupt bird migration. The lake is home to the largest migration corridor for nocturnal birds in North America.

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory released a report in March which identified more than 30 key challenges facing offshore wind development in the Great Lakes. The uncertain impact of these developments on bird and bat populations was among the highest-priority challenges.

“The impacts of wind turbines on some species of birds and bats may contribute, along with other stressors, to population-level declines,” according to the report.

Fully researching the issue across the region could cost up to $8 million and take several years, according to the NREL report.

This echoes concerns cited by conservationists who oppose the legislation.

Bob Fisher is a spokesman for the Bird Conservation Network, a coalition of conservation organizations that studies bird behavior in the Chicagoland region. He was also a member of the state’s Lake Michigan Offshore Wind Energy Advisory committee before it disbanded. Fisher described the impact offshore wind would have on Lake Michigan’s bird population as a “very, very complicated question.”

In an email statement, Fisher said that the General Assembly should “pause” the Rust Belt to Green Belt project and “pass legislation providing funding for a comprehensive environmental analysis, collecting the best available science on bird use (nocturnal neotropical migrants and wintering waterfowl especially) of Illinois waters of Lake Michigan.”

While the Bird Conservation Network, the Illinois Audubon Society and the American Bird Conservancy all opposed the bill as it went through committee, not all bird advocates were against it.

Audubon Great Lakes, or AGL, has been a key supporter of Rust Belt to Green Belt as well as a player in Ohio’s Icebreaker project, helping to choose the development’s location. They also successfully advocated for collision detection systems for the project and for mandatory data collection on bird migration over Lake Erie.

AGL supports the legislation and the project as a whole.

“The cost to birds if we do not invest in renewable energy is unthinkable, as climate change stands to take a far greater toll than any threat posed by well-sited and operated clean energy infrastructure itself,” AGL’s Policy Director Adam Forrer wrote in a letter of support for the project.

Sierra Club leadership shared the sentiment, saying that the potential sites for the turbines would be clear of the most concentrated migration paths along the coastline.

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“We need clean energy and we need it as quickly as possible,” Darin said.

The legislature’s roleEvans, describing HB 2132 on the House floor, said the legislation was “step one.”

“We’re a long way away, but we’ve got to get the ball rolling,” Evans said.

The bill passed the House on March 24 by a vote of 85-21. A previous version of the bill was also heard in a subject matter hearing in the Senate Energy and Public Utilities Committee in March.

Opposition in the legislature has come mostly from Republicans, although two Democrats voted against the bill: Reps. Rita Mayfield, D-Waukegan, and Curtis Tarver, D-Chicago.

Both of their districts border Lake Michigan, with Tarver representing most of the coastline on Chicago’s South Side, including a proposed site of the development.

“This is not something my district wants,” Tarver said during debate on the House floor. “... There are many, many issues and many, many community groups who do not want this.”

Evans responded that the legislation does not identify a location and that the site of the project would come later in the process.

Peters, whose district includes all of Tarver’s, said that there was some confusion over location, although he identified Chicago’s port district as the “preferred spot” for development.

Although he declined to comment directly on Tarver’s opposition, Peters defended the plan’s benefits to the local community, citing the bill’s required community benefits agreement.

When asked about how likely the bill would be to advance, Peters said he felt “optimistic.”

“We’re in a good place for a variety of reasons,” Peters said. “We have immensely broad support from business, labor and a variety of environmental justice organizations. I think most members of the Senate are supportive of this issue.”

The bill awaits consideration in the Senate.

Capitol News Illinois is a nonprofit, nonpartisan news service covering state government. It is distributed to more than 400 newspapers statewide, as well as hundreds of radio and TV stations. It is funded primarily by the Illinois Press Foundation and the Robert R. McCormick Foundation.

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Who is the leader of offshore wind farms? ›

Ørsted is the global leader in offshore wind. We construct and operate offshore wind farms in Denmark, the UK, Germany, the Netherlands, Taiwan, and the US. And it's our aspiration to bring offshore wind energy to even more markets. Our ambition is to have installed 30 GW of offshore wind capacity by 2030.

What is the outlook for offshore wind turbines? ›

How big is the offshore wind market? The market size of offshore wind energy crossed USD 47.5 billion in 2022 and is predicted to depict over 16% gains through 2032, fueled by strong investments in renewable energy sources and favorable regulatory policies.

What is the 2030 offshore wind energy roadmap? ›

This roadmap is set out by the Dutch Ministry for the Economy and Climate to foster new offshore wind generation in the country by 2030. The plan sets out a target of additional capacity of 4.5 GW to be added by 2023 and 7 GW between 2024 and 2030.

What will offshore wind capacity be in 2030? ›

The strategy sets targets for an installed capacity of at least 60 GW of offshore wind and 1 GW of ocean energy by 2030, and 300 GW and 40 GW, respectively, by 2050.

Who are the key players in offshore wind market? ›

Some of the leading players are Siemens Gamesa, MHI Vestas Offshore Wind, Senvion, Adwen Offshore, ABB, GE Renewable Energy, Ming Yang Smart Energy, Nordex Group, Goldwind, Envision Energy, Suzlon Group, and Hitachi.

Who are the big players in offshore wind? ›

Globally Leading Companies Providing Offshore Wind Energy Systems & Solutions; Top 10 by Revenue
  • GE Power.
  • Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.
  • ABB Ltd.
  • Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction Co., Ltd.
  • Siemens Gamesa Renewable Energy.
  • Alstom SA.
  • Rockwell Automation, Inc.
  • Avangrid Inc.
Apr 20, 2023

What is the lifespan of offshore wind turbines? ›

A good quality, modern wind turbine will generally last for 20 years, although this can be extended to 25 years or longer depending on environmental factors and the correct maintenance procedures being followed.

What is the downside of offshore wind farms? ›

Disadvantages of offshore wind power

Offshore wind farms require more complex infrastructure to support them and, as a result, are more expensive to construct. Higher wind speeds, strong seas and accessibility issues makes offshore wind farms more challenging to maintain.

Who has the largest market share in offshore wind turbine manufacturing? ›

Siemens dominates the global market among manufacturers of offshore turbines.

What is the offshore wind outlook for 2023? ›


2023 should be the very first year to exceed 100 GW of new capacity added globally with this on same fact GWEC Market Intelligence forecasts year-on-year growth of 15%. GWEC Market Intelligence forecasts 680 GW of new capacity in the next five years (2023-27). This represents 136 GW per year to 2027.

What is the name of the world's largest offshore wind project? ›

The World's Largest Offshore Wind Farm - Dogger Bank Wind Farm.

What is the largest offshore wind project? ›

Hornsea 2 is currently the world's largest largest offshore wind farm, with 165 turbines and a 1.3-GW capacity.

What is the US offshore wind target 2050? ›

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has released its Offshore Wind Energy Strategy, a first-of-its-kind, comprehensive summary of the Department's efforts to meet the goal to deploy 30 GW of offshore wind energy by 2030 and set the nation on a pathway to 110 GW or more by 2050.

What is the US offshore wind target for 2035? ›

1 As a critical part of this pathway, this strategy seeks to also support the deployment of 15 GW of floating offshore wind capacity by 2035, as announced by the Biden administration in September 2022.

How much offshore wind is too much? ›

Offshore boats range from 30 to over 80 feet, and the difference in capability is significant. But, it's always better to err on the side of caution. As a general rule, anything over three foot seas with winds of 20 to 25 knots creates conditions that are no longer safe for fishing.

What is the country that has the biggest offshore wind farm? ›

Hornsea 2 is situated in waters roughly 89 kilometers off the coast of Yorkshire, England.

Who is the champion of offshore wind sector? ›

The UK Offshore Wind Champion, Tim Pick, was appointed in May 2022 as an independent advisor to government and industry on the development of the UK's offshore wind sector. The Secretary of State has written to Tim thanking him for his report and noting his recommendations.

What is the deepest offshore wind farm? ›

Seaway 7 has completed the installation of foundations at the Seagreen wind farm site in Scottish waters, including what is thought to be the world's deepest offshore wind turbine foundation.

Who has the largest installed wind capacity in the world? ›

The largest wind power market in the world is China, with a capacity of over 237 gigawatts of wind power installed. China's wind potential is remarkable due to a large land mass as well as a long coastline.

How long does it take for a wind turbine to pay for itself? ›

What is the environmental payback period? The environmental payback period is the amount of time it takes for a wind turbine to generate the amount of energy used during manufacturing and installation. For most wind turbines, the time it takes to offset this energy use is between 6 months to a year.

How many homes can one offshore wind turbine power? ›

How many homes can one wind turbine power? Though this number can vary greatly due to factors such as size, wind conditions, repairs, and blade length, a typical wind turbine can power 1000-2000 homes in one year.

At what speed do offshore wind turbines cut out? ›

The wind turbines start generating electricity at wind speeds of around 3 metres per second (m/s) or approximately 7 miles per hour and generate maximum rated power (reach full capacity), at 12 m/s. They cut out when wind speeds reach 25.5 m/s, or around 50 miles per hour, to prevent damage from the gale force winds.

Why are people against offshore wind farms? ›

The primary environmental concerns with offshore wind transmission are the impact to the seafloor, sensitive coastal environments, and other marine life. There is also concern with potential conflict with other ocean uses.

What is the failure rate of offshore wind turbines? ›

The average failure rate for an offshore wind turbine levels out at approximately 10 failures per turbine per year by a wind farm's third operational year. With ~80% of those repairs being minor repairs, ~17.5% major repairs and ~2.5% major replacements.

Which two nations produce the highest percentage of wind power in the world? ›

If you look at scale alone, China (728 TWh), the EU-27 (540 TWh) and the United States (469 TWh) stand out as the largest producers of wind and solar power. Together they are responsible for more than two-thirds of global generation.

What country sells the most wind turbines? ›

#1 China. China ranks #1 on our list of 15 Countries That Produce the Most Wind Energy given its 2021 installed wind turbine capacity of almost 329 GW.

What company owns the most wind turbines? ›

The largest wind power company in the world is Siemens, with a revenue of $78.03 billion. As of 2022, the global wind power market size is $100.66 billion. There are currently 70,800 wind turbines across the U.S.

Who is the leader in the wind energy market? ›

Major vendors in the global wind energy market share include Vestas, Sinovel, Goldwind, EDF Renewable Energy, ENERCON GmbH, Suzlon Group, American Electric Power Company, Inc., Dongfang Electric Corporation, Ming Yang Smart Energy Group Co., Nordex SE, Avangrid, Inc., GE Renewable, ABB Limited, DONG Energy, NextEra ...

What will be the floating offshore wind capacity in 2050? ›

By 2050, we predict that floating offshore wind will generate 264 GW or 15% of all offshore wind energy.

Is offshore wind energy the future? ›

Yes. Offshore wind power is a constantly renewable and infinite energy source, and the conversion of wind into power creates no harmful greenhouse gas emissions. As we work to tackle climate change and reduce greenhouse gases, offshore wind power will play an essential role in our future electricity generation.

What is the lifetime extension of offshore wind farms? ›

The study suggests that lifetime extension of projects with a 25-year design lifetime, by 5-15 years, and full replacement of the wind farm after approximately 30 years, offers Page 5 Lifetime Extension and Optimal Lifecycle Offshore Wind Turbines www.tki-windopzee.nl 5/36 the lowest LCoE.

Where's the biggest wind farm in the world? ›

The Gansu Wind Farm in China is the largest wind farm in the world, with a target capacity of 20,000 MW by 2020.

Where is the largest offshore wind farm in North America? ›

Located 24 nautical miles off the coast of Virginia Beach, the CVOW Project will have 176 wind turbines with a combined capacity of 2,587MW, able to power approximately 660,000 homes and avoid 5 millions tons of CO2. The project is estimated to be completed by the end of 2026 with a capital cost of $9.6 billion.

What is the biggest wind project in North America? ›

Roscoe wind farm in Texas, US, is one of the world's biggest onshore wind farms, with an installed capacity of 781.5MW.

Which state has the most offshore wind potential? ›

Atlantic Coast

Because of its shallow waters and average offshore wind speeds in excess of 9 m/s, the coast off Massachusetts has the greatest potential offshore wind production in the US, at more than 1 million GWh per year, followed by that of the Gulf Coast states.

Why is there no offshore wind in the US? ›

But in the United States, the deep water necessary for wind turbines is managed by the federal Interior Department, while the contracts are awarded by states. So a project could wind up winning the site lease, but getting passed over for the contract, or vice versa.

Where is America's largest offshore wind farm expected to be constructed? ›

The turbines will be constructed about 15 miles south of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket, Massachusetts. Underwater cables will bring that energy from the turbines to Covell's Beach in Barnstable, Massachusetts.

Could offshore wind power the US? ›

Stronger and more consistent than onshore wind, offshore wind has huge potential to make up a significant portion of the U.S. clean energy mix. In fact, offshore wind could provide more than 2,000 gigawatts (GW) of energy in the United States—two times the present generation of the entire U.S. electric grid.

What are the US offshore wind state targets? ›

The national offshore wind energy target of 30 gigawatts (GW) by 2030 referenced the potential benefits of establishing a domestic supply chain, including providing existing suppliers with the ability to produce thousands of components while creating tens of thousands of U.S. jobs.

How windy is too windy for boating? ›

Some examples of dangerous weather that can occur include strong winds, rough seas, lightning and waterspouts. Generally, wind gusts of 34 knots (39 mph) or more are often strong enough to capsize small boats, especially when they catch the boater off-guard.

What is the best wind speed for boating? ›

Five-knot winds or less will be barely noticeable, and you should have calm seas and ideal boating conditions. At ten knots, the surface can become choppy, which is usually OK for inshore boating.

What are the dangers of offshore wind turbines? ›

Impact of offshore wind developments on marine life

The sound levels from pile-driving, when the turbine is hammered to the seabed, are particularly high. This is potentially harmful to marine species and have been of greatest concern to marine mammal species, such as endangered whales.

What country currently is the leader in producing wind turbines? ›

#1 China. China ranks #1 on our list of 15 Countries That Produce the Most Wind Energy given its 2021 installed wind turbine capacity of almost 329 GW.

Who is the leader in the implementation of wind turbines? ›

Your partner in wind power solutions

GE Renewable Energy is one of the world's leading wind turbine suppliers, with over 49,000 units installed and generating wind electricity across the globe.

Where is the world's largest offshore wind farm located? ›

Hornsea 2 is currently the world's largest largest offshore wind farm, with 165 turbines and a 1.3-GW capacity. The world's largest-capacity offshore wind energy project has gone live in the North Sea centered about 56 miles off the U.K.'s east coast.

Where is the world largest offshore wind farm? ›

Ørsted is proud to announce that the world's largest installed windfarm, Hornsea 2, is now fully operational. The 1.3GW offshore wind farm comprises 165 wind turbines, located 89km off the Yorkshire Coast, which will help power over 1.4 million UK homes with low-cost, clean and secure renewable energy.

Where is the largest wind turbine in the US? ›

Located in Tehachapi, Kern County, California, the Alta Wind Energy Centre is the biggest wind farm in the US. With a combined installed capacity of about 1,550MW, the power generated by the wind farm is sold to Southern California Edison under a 25-year power purchase agreement (PPA).

What is the best wind turbine in the world? ›

As the world's most powerful wind turbine, one V236-15.0MW can produce 80 GWh per year. According to Vestas, that's enough to power about 20,000 European households and save more than 418,000 tons of carbon dioxide every year.

What is the name of the largest wind turbine farm in the US? ›

The Alta Wind Energy Center in California is the largest wind farm in the United States with a capacity of 1,548 MW. GE Power is the largest domestic wind turbine manufacturer.

What are 3 disadvantages of wind energy? ›

Disadvantages of Wind Energy
  • Wind turbines can be dangerous to some wildlife. Wind turbines can be fatal to wildlife. ...
  • Wind turbines can be noisy. ...
  • Wind power is limited by location.

Which country has the cleanest energy in the world? ›

The same report shows the largest producer of “clean” energy is Norway, where 99% of the energy produced comes from renewable sources.

What are the disadvantages of offshore wind farms? ›

Disadvantages of offshore wind power

Offshore wind farms require more complex infrastructure to support them and, as a result, are more expensive to construct. Higher wind speeds, strong seas and accessibility issues makes offshore wind farms more challenging to maintain.

How long do offshore wind turbines last? ›

A good quality, modern wind turbine will generally last for 20 years, although this can be extended to 25 years or longer depending on environmental factors and the correct maintenance procedures being followed. However, the maintenance costs will increase as the structure ages.

How many offshore wind projects are in the US? ›

There are two operating offshore wind farms in the United States, and several more are in permitting or under construction.


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